Source:

FCOVER, NDVI, Soil Moisture and Pacific Ocean Evaporation indicators from Copernicus and GIBS-NASA to do surveillance of Vegetable Activity in Guatemala-Central America and California, Florida-United States of America.

 

Summary:

    SD Metrics (http://www.sdmetrics.info/home/copernicus-gibs/ ) developed a tool for Google Maps and statistics to measure NDVI(Copernicus), FCOVER(Copernicus), Soil Water Index(Copernicus), Soil Moisture(Gibs-NASA) and Pacific Ocean Water Evaporation(Gibs-NASA).
    Guatemala, California-Florida USA are the first regions to be analized.  

This tool can be adapted to any region of the world for any person-organization to develop an specialized study using satellite indicators of Copernicus and NASA.
    Different indicators from different satellites show the same trending in Guatemala during 2016.  The rainy season was delayed for one month.  
    As a comparison on the lowest point of FCOVER of 2016 of the Mayan Biosphere had an average of 0.7.  California had an average on its top of 0.18.  So it shows a very low green vegetable activity all over the year.
    Also for Soil Moisture.  The lowest point for Mayan Biosphere was 0.22.  The top for California was 0.20 in January, 2016.  The last lecture on Sept. 05 was 0.13.
    As comparison, the top Soil Moisture for Florida during 2016 is 0.24 and the lowest is 0.17.  The top for Mayan Biosphere is 0.40 and the lowest is 0.22.
    The green vegetable activity top was on July with 0.78.  On Sept. 05 was 0.75.  The top for Mayan Biosphere was 0.94 and the lowest was 0.7.  Again further research is needed to see how will be the trending for FCOVER for Florida for the rest of the year.

All the actual and future results on Google Maps, statistical graphics and numeric results can be read on this link:  http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp

    A more accurate data for Google maps positions will be possible, once the Copernicus 300 meters resolution products will be in operation.  Expected for the end of this year, 2016.
  Soil Moisture of GIBS-NASA and Soil Water Index of Copernicus can help to prevent landslides in high risk countries like Guatemala. For example, after heavy rains started in September, 2016, Guatemala City has 0.40 indicator of Soil Moisture. But on August 02, it had the same 0.40 indicator. A close survellaince of over saturated soils can help to prevent disasters.

 

Introduction:

    SD Metrics (http://www.sdmetrics.info/home/copernicus-gibs/ ) developed a Google Maps (latitude-longitude geo position) and statistics graphic tool to analyze and compare the following indicators:

  1. FCOVER (Copernicus, http://copernicus.eu/)

  2. NDVI (Copernicus, http://copernicus.eu/)

  3. Soil Water Index (Copernicus, http://copernicus.eu/)

  4. Soil Moisture  (WorldView, GIBS, NASA, https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/)

  5. Water Vapor in Pacific Ocean, off Coast of Guatemala. (WorldView, GIBS, NASA, https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/)

 

    Description of the indicators used:

  1. FCOVER: Fraction of Vegetation Cover.  Is the ground covered by green vegetation. It is independent of the illumination direction and sensitive to vegetation amount.  So it does to be the best option to replace classical vegetation indexes like NDVI (Source: http://land.copernicus.eu/global/products/fcover )

  2. NDVI:  Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. http://land.copernicus.eu/global/products/ndvi

  3. Soil Water Index http://land.copernicus.eu/global/products/swi

  4. Soil Moisture https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/

  5. Water Vapor https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/

 

    Three regions were initially chosen for a continuous research of extreme weather, droughts and landslides due to heavy rain:
    a) Guatemala, Central America:

        a.1) Mayan Biosphere

        a.2) Eastern, Western, Central and South Coast.

    b) California and Florida States in the USA.  (LPAR-Copernicus and Soil Moisture/GIBS)

    

The reasons to study these regions are:
    a) Guatemala is the 4th. Country of the world with more vulnerability to Climate Change.  Last years, 2014 and 2015, El Niño created severe droughts.  It had an impact in food security and agriculture.  Also, extreme weather like heavy rains of 2016 can create landslides that will affect people living in risk areas.

b) According to National Centers for Environmental Information, NOAA, California and Florida are suffering long periods of droughts.  In California, the lack of rains has created wildfires.  The report for August, 2016 can be read here

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/drought/201607

 

The indicators used in Guatemala show a delay on the beginning of the rainy season of one month.   Rains started in June of this year.  This phenomena is also found in the high temperatures of the Pacific Ocean, off coast of Guatemala.  The ocean started to cool down until the end of May, 2016.

California and Florida show steady behaviour in vegetable activity and soil moisture during 2016.  But the soil suppose to recharge moisture at some part of the year, and apparantle it has not happened during 2016.


 

1.  Trending comparison between FCOVER and NDVI in Guatemala.  Mayan Biosphere.

    Longitude-Latitude pinned indicators can be read on the Google Map generated.  In the figure 1, shows the FCOVER indicators for August 25th 2016.  The link to the map for this date is here: http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-08-25&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-08-25&tipo=6&latitud01=15.47&latitud02=17.90&longitud01=-91.63&longitud02=-89.23

Figure 1

 

FCOVER indicators for Mayan biosphere graphic can be read in Figure 2. It shows that the green vegetation coverage started to grow until the end of May.  One month after the seedtime of food products like maize and beans.

    The graphic with future data is on this link:    http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-08-25&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-08-25&tipo=6&latitud01=15.47&latitud02=17.90&longitud01=-91.63&longitud02=-89.23

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2

 

Figure 2
    

    NDVI indicator for Mayan Biosphere shows the same trending that FCOVER.  The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index started to grow at the end of May, 2016.  The actual and future NDVI indicator for Mayan Biosphere can be read on this link:
    http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-08-31&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-08-31&tipo=4&latitud01=15.47&latitud02=17.90&longitud01=-91.63&longitud02=-89.23



 

Figure 3 shows the NDVI for Mayan Biosphere during 2016.
 

Figure 3

 

Figure 3

 

    As cross check, another two indicators of different satellites were used.  The indicators used are:  

  1. Soil Water Index from Copernicus.

  2. Soil Moisture from Gibs-NASA.

    The actual and future data can for Mayan Biosphere, Soil Water Index, can be read here:
http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-08-31&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-08-31&tipo=7&latitud01=15.47&latitud02=17.90&longitud01=-91.63&longitud02=-89.23

 

 

Figure 4 shows the trending for Mayan Biosphere for Soil Water Index.
 

 

Figure 4

Figure 4

 

    The Soil Moisture (Gibs-NASA) for Mayan Biosphere shows the same situation that FCOVER, NDVI, SWI;  the soil started to have more water and producing more vegetable activity until the end of May, 2016.  As you can see in Figure 5.

    The link for actual and future data of Soil Moisture for Mayan Biosphere is:

    http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-09-05&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-09-05&tipo=5&latitud01=15.47&latitud02=17.90&longitud01=-91.63&longitud02=-89.23

 

 

 

 

Figure 5

Figure 5

 

    As a proof of how the high temperatures of the Pacific Ocean due to El Niño of 2014 and 2015, the Water Evaporation of the Pacific Ocean off coast of Guatemala, shows that the water started to cool down until June.  When the rainy season started with one month of delay.  Further research must be done of the impact of this delay on agriculture and products with yearly cycles of life, like coffee.

    Figure 6 shows how the Google Maps position can show the water evaporate on the Pacific Ocean.
    

Figure 6

Figure 6

 

    Figure 7 shows the statistical graphic proof that the ocean started to cool down until June.  It even had an increase in water evaporation after April 10th.  And had a high evaporation all over May.

 

 

 

Figure 7

Figure 7

 

1.1 Soil Moisture and Soil Water Index for Guatemala:

 

Website main data http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp has the options to read these indicators:
Soil Moisture Gua

Soil Water Index Gua.

 

2.- FCOVER and Soil Moisture for California and Florida, USA

    According to the National Center for Environmental Information, several states of the USA are suffering of severe and extreme droughts.  The report for August 2016 can be read here:  https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/drought/201607

Figure 8 shows the situation for the USA.


 

 

Figure 8

 

 

Figure 8
 

FCOVER and Soil Moisture  indicators were used to see the impact of the droughts in California and Florida.  

 

Figure 9 shows the Soil Moisture numbers and graphic for California in 2016.

 

 


    

 

Figure 9

Figure 9    

 

Figure 10 shows the FCOVER for California during 2016

 
 

 

Figure 10

 

Figure 10

 

As a comparison on the lowest point of FCOVER of 2016 of the Mayan Biosphere had an average of 0.7.  California had an average on its top of 0.18.  So it shows a very low green vegetable activity all over the year.
    Also for Soil Moisture.  The lowest point for Mayan Biosphere was 0.22.  The top for California was 0.20 in January, 2016.  The last lecture on Sept. 05 was 0.13.

Soil Moisture California data is on:

http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-09-05&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-09-05&tipo=9&latitud01=30&latitud02=40&longitud01=-130&longitud02=-110

 

FCOVER for California data is here:
http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-09-05&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-09-05&tipo=10&latitud01=30&latitud02=40&longitud01=-130&longitud02=-110


    Figure 11 shows the Soil Moisture for Florida for 2016.
 

 

Figure 11

 

Figure 11

    
    As comparison, the top Soil Moisture for Florida during 2016 is 0.24 and the lowest is 0.17..  The top for Mayan Biosphere is 0.40 and the lowest is 0.22.  Further research is needed to see if 0.24 is enough to sustain the agro-industry in Florida.  And how will be the behaviour during the rest of the year.

Figure 12 shows the FCOVER for Florida during 2016.
 

 

Figure 12

Figure 12

    
    The green vegetable activity top was on July with 0.78.  On Sept. 05 was 0.75.  The top for Mayan Biosphere was 0.94 and the lowest was 0.7.  Again further research is needed to see how will be the trending for FCOVER for Florida for the rest of the year.


    Soil Moisture actual and future data for Floirda can be read here:    http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-09-05&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-09-05&tipo=11&latitud01=20&latitud02=30&longitud01=-90&longitud02=-80

 

    FCOVER actual and future data for Florida can be read here:

http://www.qestad.info/fps/dispdatagt.jsp?fecha_despliegue_in=2016-09-05&fecha_despliegue_final=2016-09-05&tipo=12&latitud01=20&latitud02=30&longitud01=-90&longitud02=-80

 

    

 

 

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